Si bacteriile simple au simtul olfactiv

Si bacteriile simple au simtul olfactiv

Si bacteriile simple au simtul olfactiv

by August 16, 2010 27 comments

Oamenii de stiinta de la Universitatea Newcastle (Marea Britanie) au realizat un studiu care arunca o noua lumina asupra bacteriilor care provoaca moartea a milioane de oameni in fiecare an. Bacteriile obisnuite au capacitatea de a raspunde la mirosuri, fapt ce le permite sa detecteze prezenta altor bacterii prin intermediul elementelor chimice emanate in mediul inconjurator, sustin cercetatorii britanici, informeaza ziarul Las Provincias. 

Cercetatorii au stabilit ca bacteriile au cel putin patru dintre cele cinci simturi pe care le au oamenii. Pot ‘vedea’, cum demonstreaza raspunsul lor la lumina; pot ‘simti’ avind in vedere ca raspund la contactul fizic; au ‘gust’ prin contactul lor direct cu elementele chimice din mediul lor; si pot ‘mirosi’ deoarece detecteaza moleculele din aer.

Le lipseste doar simtul auzului, spun cercetatorii, care au ajuns la aceasta concluzie dupa ce au verificat ca doua specii terestre – Bacillus subtilis si Bacillus licheniformus – reactioneaza in acelasi fel la mirosul de amoniac – nutrient de baza al bacteriilor – emanat de cealalta. Din acel moment, fiecare dintre ele si-a dezvoltat propria biopelicula bacteriana, prin care bacteriile isi unesc fortele pentru a coloniza o zona sau pentru a expulza potentialii concurenti.

Profesorul Grant Burgess, director al Laboratorului Marin de la Universitatea din Newcastle, a precizat ca ‘simtul olfactiv a fost semnalat si la alte fiinte, inclusiv la bacteria de drojdie si la mucegai’, dar a subliniat ca studiul demonstreaza pentru prima data ca exista acest simt la bacteriile cele mai simple.

‘Din perspectiva evolutiva credem ca poate fi primul exemplu cum aceste fiinte au invatat sa miroasa alte fiinte vii’, a spus el. Cercetatorul a precizat ca este vorba de o observatie in ‘faza timpurie’ si ca ramine multa munca de facut, dar a considerat ca este ‘un mare avans care arata cit de complexe sunt bacteriile si modul in care folosesc diferite cai pentru a comunica intre ele’.

‘Infectiile bacteriene ucid anual milioane de oameni, prin urmare a afla cum comunica dusmanii nostri este un pas important pentru a cistiga razboiul’, a adaugat Burgess, care a publicat lucrarea in revista medicala Biotechnology Journal.

Cercetarii au explicat ca biopelicula este una din principalele surse de infectie cauzate de instrumentalul medical contaminat, precum valvele cardiace, protezele artificiale sau implanturile mamare. Costa de asemenea si industria maritima milioane de euro in fiecare an pentru ca afecteaza motorele si combustibilul ambarcatiunilor, desi sub aspect pozitiv anumite biopelicule ajuta la indepartarea stratului de petrol deversat in mare.

Doctorul Reindert Nijland, membru al echipei de cercetare, a subliniat ca ‘este o descoperire importanta pentru medicina si industrie’, deoarece a afla cum celulele si-au creat acest simt ca raspuns la expunerea lor la amoniac are implicatii importante pentru a intelege cum se formeaza biopelicula si a intoarce acest aspect in favoarea noastra’.

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